Arsenic

Atomic Number:33Atomic Radius:185 pm (Van der Waals)
Atomic Symbol:AsMelting Point:~817 °C
Atomic Weight:74.92Boiling Point:603 °C
Electron Configuration:[Ar]4s23d104p3Oxidation States:5, 4, 3, 2, 1,[3] −1, −2, −3 ​(a mildly acidic oxide)

History

From the Latin word arsenicum, Greek arsenikon. Elemental arsenic occurs in two solid modifications: yellow, and gray or metallic, with specific gravities of 1.97, and 5.73, respectively. It is believed that Albertus Magnus obtained the element in 1250 A.D. In 1649 Schroeder published two methods of preparing the element. Mispickel arsenopyrite, (FeSAs), is the most common mineral from which, on heating, the arsenic sublimes leaving ferrous sulfide.

Properties

The element is a steel gray, very brittle, crystalline, semimetallic solid; it tarnishes in air, and when it is heated it rapidly oxidizes to arsenous oxide, which smells of garlic. Arsenic and its compounds are poisonous.

Uses

Arsenic is used in bronzing, pyrotechny, and for hardening and improving the sphericity of shot. The most important compounds are white arsenic, the sulfide, Paris green, calcium arsenate, and lead arsenate; the last three have been used as agricultural insecticides and poisons. Marsh’s test makes use of the formation and ready decomposition of arsine. Arsenic is finding increasing uses as a doping agent in solid-state devices such as transistors. Gallium arsenide is used as a laser material to convert electricity directly into coherent light.